Environmental-Level Strategies:

Environmental-level strategies aim to reduce underage and excessive drinking at the population level by changing the context (i.e., places, settings, occasions, and circumstances) in which alcohol use occurs, thereby reducing consequences.

Full Environmental Matrix

Environmental Strategies

Enforce

age-21 drinking age

(e.g., compliance checks)

Under this strategy, campuses and local and state government support and implement strong enforcement of the existing age-21 minimum legal drinking age. (Compliance checks are an approach regulated at the local or state level whereby undercover youth, supervised by law enforcement or licensing authorities, attempt to purchase alcohol. When a violation occurs, a penalty is applied to the server and/or the license holder, depending on local or state law.)


Effectiveness:star star star = Higher effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Barry R, Edwards E, Pelletier A, Brewer R, Naimi T, Redmond A, et al. Enhanced enforcement of laws to prevent alcohol sales to underage persons — New Hampshire, 1999–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(21):452–4, 2004.

  • Flewelling RL, Grube JW, Paschall MJ, Biglan A, Kraft A, Black C, et al. Reducing youth access to alcohol: Findings from a community-based randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 51(1–2):264–77, 2013.

  • Grube JW. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: Results from a community trial. Addiction, 92(Suppl. 2):S251–60, 1997.

  • Holmila M, Karlsson T, & Warpenius K. Controlling teenagers’ drinking: effects of a community-based prevention project. Journal of Substance Use, 15(3):201–14, 2010.

  • Preusser DF, Williams AF, & Weinstein HB. Policing underage alcohol sales. Journal of Safety Research, 25(3):127–33, 1994.

  • Scribner R & Cohen D. The effect of enforcement on merchant compliance with the minimum legal drinking age law. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(4):857–66, 2001.

  • Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Lee JP, & Remer LG. The Sacramento Neighborhood Alcohol Prevention Project: Outcomes from a community prevention trial. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 68(2):197–207, 2007.

  • Wagenaar AC, Toomey TL, & Erickson DJ. Preventing youth access to alcohol: Outcomes from a multi-community time-series trial. Addiction, 100(3):335–45, 2005.

  • Review:
    Elder R, Lawrence B, Janes G, Brewer R, Toomey T, Hingson R, et al. Enhanced enforcement of laws prohibiting sale of alcohol to minors: Systematic review of effectiveness for reducing sales and underage drinking. Transportation Research E-Circular, (E-C123):181–8, 2007.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Increase

alcohol tax

Under this strategy, a state or local government increases the tax on the sale of alcohol, thereby raising the cost of alcohol consumption and the affordability of excessive drinking.


Effectiveness:star star star = Higher effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

NIAAA, Alcohol Policy Information System:

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Restrict

happy hours/price promotions

Under this strategy, a campus or local or state government prohibits or restricts drink specials, such as the sale of two alcoholic beverages for the price of one, that encourage customers to drink more than they might otherwise.


Effectiveness:star star star = Higher effectiveness

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Retain ban on

Sunday sales

(where applicable)

Under this strategy, campuses and local and state governments support existing bans on Sunday sales of alcohol for offsite consumption. (No state bans such sales for onsite consumption.)


Effectiveness:star star star = Higher effectiveness

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

NIAAA, Alcohol Policy Information System: Sunday Sales

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Retain

age-21 drinking age

All states, the District of Columbia, and Guam currently prohibit anyone under age 21 from possessing alcoholic beverages; most states also prohibit those under age 21 from purchasing and consuming alcoholic beverages. Under this strategy, campuses and local and state governments support continuation of the age-21 minimum legal drinking age due to its effectiveness in reducing underage drinking consequences.


Effectiveness:star star star = Higher effectiveness

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

See related studies in References, which summarize reductions in alcohol use consequences due to the age 21 minimum legal drinking age.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

responsible beverage service training laws

Responsible beverage service training laws, enacted at the local or state level, mandate that all or some servers, managers, and/or license holders at alcohol establishments receive formal training on how to responsibly serve alcohol. Training includes ways to recognize signs of intoxication, methods for checking age identification, and intervention techniques.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Prohibit

alcohol use/sales at campus sporting events

Under this strategy, a campus bans the sale and consumption of alcohol at sporting events.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Bormann CA & Stone MH. The effects of eliminating alcohol in a college stadium: The Folsom Field beer ban. Journal of American College Health, 50(2):81–8, 2001.

  • Boyes WJ & Faith RL. Temporal regulation and intertemporal substitution—The effect of banning alcohol at college football games. Public Choice, 77(3):595–609, 1993.

  • Johannessen K, Glider P, Collins C, Hueston H, & DeJong W. Preventing alcohol-related problems at the University of Arizona’s homecoming: An environmental management case study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(3):587—97, 2001.

  • Nelson TF, Lenk KM, Xuan ZM, & Wechsler H. Student drinking at us college sports events. Substance Use and Misuse, 45(12):1861–73, 2010.

  • Oster-Aaland LK & Neighbors C. The impact of a tailgating policy on students’ drinking behavior and perceptions. Journal of American College Health, 56(3):281–4, 2007.

  • Spaite DW, Meislin HW, Valenzuela T, Criss EA, Smith R, & Nelson A. Banning alcohol in a major college stadium:  Impact on the incidence and patterns of injury and illness. Journal of American College Health, 39(3):125–8, 1990.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

dram shop liability laws: Sales to intoxicated

This type of dram shop liability law is enacted at the state level to hold the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location responsible for damages caused by an intoxicated person who was overserved alcohol at that location. Liability can be established by case law or statute.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

National Conference of State Legislatures (examples of legislation, by state), Dram Shop Civil Liability and Criminal Penalty State Statutes

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

dram shop liability laws: Sales to underage

This type of dram shop liability law is enacted at the state level to hold the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location responsible for damages caused by an underage drinker who was sold alcohol at that location.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

National Conference of State Legislatures (examples of legislation, by state, Dram Shop Civil Liability and Criminal Penalty State Statutes

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Limit

number/density of alcohol establishments

Under this strategy, local or state governments enact regulations that reduce the number of alcohol establishments or limit the number that may be established in a community or area, often through licensing or zoning laws.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Review:
    Campbell CA, Hahn RA, Elder R, Brewer R, Chattopadhyay S, Fielding P, et al. The effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density as a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(6):556–69, 2009.

  • Recent studies:
    Mair C, Gruenewald PJ, Ponicki WR, & Remer L. Varying impacts of alcohol outlet densities on violent assaults: Explaining differences across neighborhoods. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74(1):50–8, 2013.

  • Pridemore WA & Grubesic TH. Alcohol outlets and community levels of interpersonal violence: spatial density, outlet type, and seriousness of assault. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(1):132–59, 2013.

  • Scribner RA, Mason KE, Simonsen NR, Theall K, Chotalia J, Johnson S, et al. An ecological analysis of alcohol-outlet density and campus-reported violence at 32 US colleges. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(2):184–91, 2010.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Retain

state-run alcohol retail stores

(where applicable)

Under this strategy, campuses and local and state governments support existing state control systems for wholesale and off-premises retail distribution whereby a state sets the prices of alcohol and gains profit/revenue directly rather than solely from taxation. Retention of the state system may reduce alcohol outlet density and pricing competition among commercial distributors.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

See related studies in References, which concluded that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Retain or enact restrictions on

hours of alcohol sales

Under this strategy, campuses or local and state governments retain or enact policies limiting the hours during which alcohol may be sold legally.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

See related studies in References, which describe the detrimental consequences associated with extended hours of alcohol sales.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

social host provision laws

Social host provision laws are enacted by local or state governments to hold accountable adults who supply alcohol to those under age 21.


Effectiveness:star star = Moderate effectiveness

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers: =

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Ventura County Behavioral Health Department, Model Social Host Liability Ordinance (2005)

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Restrict

alcohol sponsorship and advertising

Under this strategy, a campus or local or state government establishes policies that restrict or prohibit alcohol sponsorship and/or advertising of alcoholic beverages, particularly where such sponsorship or advertising exposes young people to alcohol messages, such as on college campuses, at rock concerts, or at athletic events.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Review
    Saffer H. Alcohol advertising and youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (Suppl. 14):173–81, 2002.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Implement

beverage service training programs: Sales to intoxicated

This type of program can be implemented at the campus, community, or state level to require training of those who sell or serve alcohol to recognize signs of intoxication, slow the service of alcohol, and cut off individuals who are obviously intoxicated. Note: Rating based on studies of programs in a few establishments.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:(At college level) # = Lower; (At state/local level) ## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

NIAAA, Alcohol Policy Information System, Beverage Service Training

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Review:
    Bolier L, Voorham L, Monshouwer K, Hasselt Nv, & Bellis M. Alcohol and drug prevention in nightlife settings: A review of experimental studies. Substance Use and Misuse, 46(13):1569–91, 2011.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Implement

beverage service training programs: Sales to underage

This type of program can be implemented at the campus, community, or state level to require training of those who sell or serve alcohol to verify the age of young customers, recognize false identification documents, and refuse sales to those under the legal drinking age. Note: Rating based on studies of programs in a few establishments.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:(At college level) # = Lower; (At state/local level) ## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

NIAAA, Alcohol Policy Information System, Beverage Service Training

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Review:
    Bolier L, Voorham L, Monshouwer K, Hasselt NV, & Bellis M. Alcohol and drug prevention in nightlife settings: A review of experimental studies. Substance Use and Misuse, 46(13):1569–91, 2011.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

keg registration laws

Keg registration laws, enacted at the local or state level, require alcohol retailers to place a unique identifier on a keg and record the purchaser’s name and address at the time of sale. Keg registration enables law enforcement agents to identify and hold responsible the adult who provided the alcohol, should underage drinking occur.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

NIAAA, Alcohol Policy Information System, Retail Sales: Keg Registration

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Establish an

alcohol-free campus

Under this strategy, a campus bans the sale, distribution, or consumption of alcohol on campus property.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

For information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

  • Knight JR, Wechsler H, Kuo MC, Seibring M, Weitzman ER, & Schuckit MA. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S. college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63(3):263–70, 2002.

  • Paek HJ & Hove T. Determinants of underage college student drinking: Implications for four major alcohol reduction strategies. Journal of Health Communication, 17(6):659–76, 2012.

  • Voas RB, Johnson M, Turrisi RJ, Taylor D, Honts CR, & Nelsen L. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: Impact on student drinking and drinking problems. Addiction, 103(6):940–50, 2008.

  • Walter G & Kowalczyk J. The effectiveness of alcohol policies in 4-year public universities. Journal of Community Health, 37(2):520–28, 2012.

  • Wechsler H, Lee JE, Gledhill-Hoyt J, & Nelson TF. Alcohol use and problems at colleges banning alcohol: Results of a national survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(2):133–41, 2001.

  • Williams J, Chaloupka FJ, & Wechsler H. Are there differential effects of price and policy on college students’ drinking intensity? Contemporary Economic Policy, 23(1):78–90, 2005.

  • Williams J, Pacula R, Chaloupka F, & Wechsler H. Alcohol and marijuana use among college students: Economic complements or substitutes? Health Economics, 13(9):825–43, 2004.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Conduct

campus-wide social norms campaign

Under this strategy, a campus conducts a campus-wide awareness campaign that informs students about actual quantity and frequency of alcohol use among their fellow students, with the intent of changing their perception of what is normal or acceptable.


Effectiveness:star = Lower effectiveness

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

National Social Norms Institute at the University of Virginia

For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Require

alcohol-free programming

Under this strategy, a campus hosts alcohol-free events to provide students with social alternatives to parties and bars where alcohol is being served.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Implement

safe-rides program

Safe-rides programs are conducted by a campus or the local community to provide free or low-cost transportation, such as taxis or van shuttles, from popular drinking venues or events to residences or other safe destinations.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Harding WM, Caudill BD, Moore BA, & Frissell KC. Do drivers drink more when they use a safe ride? Journal of Substance Abuse, 13:283–90, 2001.

  • Caudill BD, Harding WM, & Moore BA. At-risk drinkers use safe ride services to avoid drinking and driving. Journal of Substance Abuse, 11:149–59, 2000.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Conduct

shoulder tap campaigns

Shoulder tap campaigns are a method used to enforce minimum legal drinking age laws whereby undercover youth, supervised by local law enforcement, approach adults outside alcohol establishments and ask them to purchase alcohol on their behalf. When a violation occurs, law enforcement issues warnings or citations to the adult.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Fabian LEA, Toomey TL, Lenk KM, & Erickson DJ. Where do underage college students get alcohol? Journal of Drug Education, 38(1):15–26, 2008.

  • Toomey TL, Fabian LEA, Erickson DJ, & Lenk KM. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(7):1218–23, 2007.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

social host property laws

Social host property laws are enacted by local or state governments to hold accountable adults who permit underage drinking to occur on property they control. The primary purpose of social host property laws is to deter underage drinking parties.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Require

unique design for state ID cards for age < 21

Under this strategy, states adopt a unique design for identification cards (e.g., vertical instead of horizontal state driver licenses) for those under age 21 so that age of the card holder is easier to identify.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$$ = Higher

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Implement

bystander interventions

In this context, bystander intervention programs offered by campuses are designed to increase a student’s capacity and willingness to intervene when another student may be in danger of harming him/herself or another person due to alcohol use. Bystander intervention programs also are used to reduce consequences of drug use, sexual assault, and other problems.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$$ = Mid-range

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Prohibit

alcohol use/service at campus social events

Under this strategy, a campus bans the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages at social events held on campus property.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Establish

amnesty policies

Under an amnesty policy, a campus does not impose sanctions on a student who seeks help for another student in danger of serious harm or death from alcohol use, even if the help seeker has been drinking underage or has provided the alcohol to an underage peer. Amnesty policies also may be known as medical amnesty or Good Samaritan policies, and some exist at the state level.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Require

Friday morning classes

Under this strategy, a campus requires classes on Friday mornings to discourage excessive alcohol use by students on Thursday evenings.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Paschall MJ, Kypri K, & Saltz RF. Friday class and heavy alcohol use in a sample of New Zealand college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(5):764–9, 2006.

  • Wood PK, Sher KJ, & Rutledge PC. College student alcohol consumption, day of the week, and class schedule. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(7):1195–1207, 2007.

  • Ward RM, Cleveland MJ, & Messman-Moore TL. Latent class analysis of college women’s Thursday drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 38(1):1407–13, 2013.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Establish

standards for alcohol service at campus social events

Under this strategy, a campus establishes policies that set certain constraints on alcohol sales, such as a limited number of alcoholic beverages per person, availability of food and non-alcoholic beverages, no self-service, and required beverage service training.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Establish

substance-free residence halls

Under this strategy, a campus bans the possession and consumption of all substances within its residence halls.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:# = Lower

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:F = Focused

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Odo J, McQuiller L, & Stretesky P. An empirical assessment of the impact of RIT’s student alcohol policy on drinking and binge drinking behavior. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 44(3):49–67, 1999.

  • Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF, & Kuo M. Underage college students' drinking behavior, access to alcohol, and the influence of deterrence policies. Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health, 50(5):223–36, 2002.

  • Wechsler H, Lee JE, Nelson TF, & Lee H. Drinking levels, alcohol problems and secondhand effects in substance-free college residences: Results of a national study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1):23–31, 2001.

  • Williams J, Pacula R, Chaloupka F, & Wechsler H. Alcohol and marijuana use among college students: Economic complements or substitutes? Health Economics, 13(9):825–43, 2004.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Strategy does not seek to reduce alcohol availability, one of the most effective ways to decrease alcohol use and its consequences.

Prohibit

beer kegs

A ban on beer kegs is an approach taken by a campus or local or state government in an effort to decrease the amount of alcohol at parties. Campus bans may apply to specific settings, such as athletic events or tailgate parties.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:(At college level) # = Lower; (At state/local level) ### = Higher

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Kilmer JR, Larimer ME, Parks GA, Dimeff LA, & Marlatt GA. Liability management or risk management? Evaluation of a Greek system alcohol policy. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13(4):269–78, 1999.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Establish

minimum age requirements to serve/sell alcohol

Under this strategy, a campus or local or state government establishes requirements specifying how old someone must be to serve or sell alcohol. Requirements may differ by type of alcohol establishment (e.g., off- vs. on-premise establishments and type of alcohol—beer, wine, or spirits) and may include exceptions under certain circumstances.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:**** = 5 or more longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Andréasson S, Lindewald B, & Rehnman C. Over-serving patrons in licensed premises in Stockholm. Addiction, 95(3):359–63, 2000.

  • Forster JL, McGovern PG, Wagenaar AC, Wolfson M, Perry CL, & Anstine PS. The ability of young people to purchase alcohol without age identification in northeastern Minnesota, USA. Addiction, 89:699–705, 1994.

  • Forster JL, Murray DM, Wolfson M, & Wagenaar AC. Commercial availability of alcohol to young people: Results of alcohol purchase attempts. Preventive Medicine 24(4):342–7, 1995.

  • Freisthler B, Gruenewald PJ, Treno AJ, & Lee J. Evaluating alcohol access and the alcohol environment in neighborhood areas. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(3):477–84, 2003.

  • Lenk KM, Toomey TL, & Erickson DJ. Propensity of alcohol establishments to sell to obviously intoxicated patrons. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30(7):1994–9, 2006.

  • Preusser DF & Williams AF. Sales of alcohol to underage purchasers in three New York counties and Washington, D.C. Journal of Public Health Policy, 13(3):306–17, 1992.

  • Toomey TL, Wagenaar AC, Erickson DJ, Fletcher LA, Patrek W, & Lenk KM. Illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons at licensed establishments. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(5):769–74, 2004.

  • Warpenius K, Holmila M, & Mustonen H. Effects of a community intervention to reduce the serving of alcohol to intoxicated patrons. Addiction, 105(6):1032–40, 2010.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Implement

party patrols

Party patrols are a community-based approach in which campus or local teams, made up of police and sometimes volunteers, visit locations where there have been reports and complaints about noisy party activity or visit addresses associated with keg registrations to determine whether underage drinking is taking place. If illegal activity is occurring, the police cite any adults who appear to have facilitated underage drinking and cite those drinking underage.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:*** = 5 or more cross-sectional studies or 1 to 4 longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Increase

cost of alcohol license

Under this strategy, a state or local government increases the cost of an alcohol license, thereby increasing the cost of operating an alcohol establishment and potentially increasing the price of alcohol and reducing the density of alcohol establishments in a given area.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Prohibit

home delivery of alcohol

Under this strategy, local or state governments prohibit home delivery of alcohol, either by local establishments or over the Internet, with the intent of preventing underage alcohol sales.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:** = 2 to 4 studies but no longitudinal studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

  • Fletcher LA, Toomey TL, Wagenaar AC, Short B, & Willenbring ML. Alcohol home delivery services: A source of alcohol for underage drinkers. Journal on Studies of Alcohol and Drugs, 61(1):81–4, 2000.

  • Kuo MC, Wechsler H, Greenberg P, & Lee H. The marketing of alcohol to college students: The role of low prices and special promotions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(3):204–11, 2003.

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.

Enact

noisy assembly laws

Noisy assembly laws, enacted at the local or state level, give law enforcement legal cause to enter a private residence if a gathering of more than one person in a residential area or building produces noise that unreasonably disturbs the peace, quiet, or repose of another. Such laws also enable law enforcement to enter residences where they have reason to suspect underage drinking is occurring.


Effectiveness:? = Too few robust studies to rate effectiveness—or mixed results

Cost:$ = Lower

Barriers:## = Moderate

Primary Modality:

Public Health Outreach:B = Broad

Research Amount:0 = No studies

Potential Resources:

Resources identified only for strategies rated effective.

References:

No studies

Notes:

Effectiveness ratings are based on estimated success in achieving targeted outcomes. Cost ratings are based on a consensus among research team members of the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number and design of studies.