Electronic/mailed Personalized Feedback Intervention (PFI): Drinking Assessment and Feedback Tool for College Students (DrAFT-CS)a
Drinking Assessment and Feedback Tool for College Students (DrAFT-CS) is a computer-delivered personalized feedback experience designed to approximate in-person interventions, through the inclusion of a video clinician that explains each piece of the feedback as it is presented.
Effectiveness: X = Too few studies to rate effectiveness
Cost: $ = Lower
Barriers: ## = Moderate
Research Amount: * = 3 or fewer studies
Public Health Reach: Broad
Primary Modality: Computer
Staffing Expertise Needed: Coordinator
Target Population: Individuals, specific groups, or all students
Duration of Effects: Short-term (< 6 months) effects; long-term (? 6 months) effects not assessed
a = New intervention (2019)
Effectiveness ratings are based on the percentage of studies reporting any positive outcomes. Strategies with three or fewer studies did not receive an effectiveness rating due to the limited data on which to base a conclusion. Cost ratings are based on the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the strategy. Duration of effects refers to the timeframe within which the intervention demonstrated effects on alcohol-related behavioral outcomes; follow-up periods for short-term effects were <6 months; follow-up periods for long-term effects were ≥6 months.
Strategies are listed by brand name if they were evaluated by at least two RCTs; strategies labeled generic/other have similar components and were not identified by name in the research or were evaluated by only one RCT; strategies labeled miscellaneous have the same approach but very different components.
References from 2019 update
- Wagener, T.L.; Leffingwell, T.R.; Mignogna, J.; et al. Randomized trial comparing computer-delivered and face-to-face personalized feedback interventions for high-risk drinking among college students. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 43(2):260–267, 2012.
- Weaver, C.C.; Leffingwell, T.R.; Lombardi, N.J.; et al. A computer-based feedback only intervention with and without a moderation skills component. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 46(1):22–28, 2014.
For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.