Skills training, alcohol focus: Protective behavioral strategies alonea
Protective behavioral strategies involve delivery of tips for minimizing or avoiding alcohol-related harms without any other intervention.
Effectiveness: = Moderate effectiveness
Cost: $ = Lower
Barriers: # = Lower
Research Amount: ** = 4 to 6 studies
Public Health Reach: Broad
Primary Modality: Online/offsite
Staffing Expertise Needed: Coordinator
Target Population: Individuals, specific groups, or all students
Duration of Effects: Short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (≥ 6 months) effects
a = New intervention (2019)
Although this approach is a component of larger, effective programs such as BASICS and ASTP, it is rated here as a stand-alone intervention.
Effectiveness ratings are based on the percentage of studies reporting any positive outcomes. Strategies with three or fewer studies did not receive an effectiveness rating due to the limited data on which to base a conclusion. Cost ratings are based on the relative program and staff costs for adoption, implementation, and maintenance of a strategy. Actual costs will vary by institution, depending on size, existing programs, and other campus and community factors. Barriers to implementing a strategy include cost and opposition, among other factors. Public health reach refers to the number of students that a strategy affects. Strategies with a broad reach affect all students or a large group of students (e.g., all underage students); strategies with a focused reach affect individuals or small groups of students (e.g., sanctioned students). Research amount/quality refers to the number of randomized controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the strategy. Duration of effects refers to the timeframe within which the intervention demonstrated effects on alcohol-related behavioral outcomes; follow-up periods for short-term effects were <6 months; follow-up periods for long-term effects were ≥6 months.
Studies from Larimer & Cronce (2007)
- Smith, B.H.; Bogle, K.E.; Talbott, L.; Gant, R.; and Castillo, H. A randomized study of four cards designed to prevent problems during college students’ 21st birthday celebrations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 67(4):607−15, 2006.
References from 2019 update
- Bock, B.C.; Barnett, N.P.; Thind, H.; et al. A text message intervention for alcohol risk reduction among community college students: TMAP. Addictive Behaviors63:107–113, 2016.
- Dvorak, R.D.; Pearson, M.R.; Neighbors, C.; and Martens, M.P. Fitting in and standing out: Increasing the use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies with a deviance regulation intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology83(3):482–493, 2015.
- Kenney, S.R.; Napper, L.E.; LaBrie, J.W.; and Martens, M.P. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors28(4):1041–1051, 2014.
- Martens, M.P.; Smith, A.E.; and Murphy, J.G. The efficacy of single-component brief motivational interventions among at-risk college drinkers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology81(4):691–701, 2013.
For more information about intervention designs and implementation, check the articles in the References tab.