Individual-level strategies aim to produce changes in attitudes or behaviors related to alcohol use rather than the environments in which alcohol use occurs. Expected outcomes, in general, are that a strategy may decrease an individual’s alcohol use (e.g., frequency, quantity, or blood alcohol concentration) and/or alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors, thereby reducing harmful consequences. All studies used college students as the research population.
Duration of effects refers to the length of time that a strategy appears to have influenced student attitudes and behaviors related to alcohol use. Effects are short term if within 6 months and long term if 6 months or longer. Effects are mixed if research studies reached different conclusions about duration.